With 73 problematic papers listed on Pubpeer, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research has a serious problem

IITR Building 1_0-Optimized

Seventy-three papers published between 2004 and 2017 by scientists at the Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Lucknow have serious problems with the images. Leading the pack with 40 problematic papers is Dr. Yogeshwer Shukla, a senior scientist at IITR. He says investigation is already under way at the institute.

Publishing papers by plagiarising is on the wane in India with almost all journals checking for plagiarism at some stage before papers get published. So, Indian researchers seem to have gained expertise at another kind of fraud — manipulating images, producing images by repeatedly using certain portions in one frame and reuse of images in the same paper or from those published earlier. Or probably, Indian researchers manipulated images the same way they used plagiarised content. Only that  papers with manipulated images are now being exposed as more researchers based outside India have started looking for them.

At last count, 73 papers published between 2004 and 2017 by scientists at the Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Lucknow have serious problems with the images. The final numbers might be way higher if one were to critically look at all papers published by scientists at IITR during the last 20-25 years. 

All the 73 papers listed below have been posted on Pubpeer website by independent researchers who have an eye to spot image manipulation and duplication, something that peer-reviews seem to have failed to spot at the time of reviewing the manuscripts.

Shukla1-Optimized
Dr. Yogeshwer Shukla of IITR.

Leading the pack with 40 problematic papers is Dr. Yogeshwer Shukla, a senior scientist at IITR. In a blog post in For Better Science, Smut Clyde has exposed Dr. Shukla’s unethical practices in about 25 papers.

In an email, Dr. Shukla says: “It may please be noted that for reasons other than originality the papers are now appearing in Pubpeer. I have also been informed that this information of Pubpeer is addressed by a committee at our institute to verify  authenticity.”

While not denying the problems cited on Pubpeer, over telephone he says: “We are hurt. I admit that unintentional mistakes might have been made. There was no way to check if the images have already been used in other papers. This is done just to create doubts about Ayurveda and to target someone. A committee is looking into it and we will clarify each and every query raised by the committee.”

A pattern with problematic papers

There is a pattern to the kind of manipulation that IITR researchers seem to have resorted to. Manipulated and reused Western Blots are the most common.  They are also a little harder to spot. The most common practice is to duplicate bands of Western Blot for completely different experiments mostly in the same paper and at times in other papers.

Shukla - Blot-Optimized
Reuse of gel bands in Western Blot in Dr. Shukla paper.

“Western blots are the most common types I see in papers with photographic images and those are also the ones I seem to find the most,” Dr. Elisabeth M. Bik, Science consultant at Harbers-Bik LLC, San Francisco, California says in an email. Dr. Bik has an eye for manipulated images and has caught tens of papers.

Shukla - duplication-Optimized
Duplication of one image in two different papers in Dr. Shukla’s papers.

Duplication of microscopic images within the same paper and between papers is the next common practice adopted by IITR scientists. While using the same image within the same panel or between panels in the same paper might arise from honest mistakes at the time of making the panels, repeating them in papers dealing with very different experiments can be called outright fraud.

Shukla - image1-Optimized
Manipulated images in which the same cells in an image are visible multiple times in Dr. Shukla’s paper.

“[In general], simple duplications (same magnification, same orientation) are the most common, and they might just be simple errors, caused by selecting the same image twice instead of picking the correct one. After that, overlapping images are very common as well. Rotated or manipulated images (in which the same cells are visible multiple times) are less common, but also harder to spot,” says Dr. Bik.

“There is no good software yet on the market to automatically screen images for duplications, but several journals and publishers use human eyes for initial screening, and subsequently software to help confirm irregularities in background noise or similarities using false-colour imaging,” she adds.

Retracted papers

Two of his papers published in 2011 in PLOS ONE and another in Life Sciences in 2007 were retracted for problematic images. Both the papers were listed on Pubpeer website (here and here) and the problems listed with the images have been cited by the journals in their retraction notice. The third one that has been retracted is an old paper.

After pointing out the problematic images in the retraction notice, PLOS ONE says: “The authors have been unable to provide any primary data underlying the figures. The authors commented that the regions of similarity in histopathological images arose due to similarity in lesions studied. For the similarities noted in flow cytometry plots, the authors commented that this could have arisen due to similarity in equipment and protocols. In the absence of the data underlying the figures and in light of the above concerns, the PLOS ONE Editors retract the article.”

The retraction note in Life Sciences paper notes: “Multiple figures in this article appear to be falsified/fabricated.

“Figure 2A. The images appear to be rotated and reused.

“Figure 3A. The Beta-actin band appears to be identical to articles from multiple [four] other journals.

“Figure 6. The Beta-actin band appears to have been reused and possibly manipulated.”

Problematic papers listed on Pubpeer website

1) Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

Esha Madan, Sahdeo Prasad, Preeti Roy, Jasmine George, Yogeshwer Shukla

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2008)

2) Involvement of multiple signaling pathways in diallyl sulfide mediated apoptosis in mouse skin tumors

Neetu Kalra, Annu Arora, Yogeshwer Shukla

Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention (2006)

3) Regulation of p53, nuclear factor kappaB and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by bromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin

Neetu Kalra, Kulpreet Bhui, Preeti Roy, Smita Srivastava, Jasmine George, Sahdeo Prasad, Yogeshwer Shukla

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2008)

4) Inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols by targeting cyclooxygenase-2 through regulation of nuclear factor kappa B, Akt and p53 in rat mammary tumors

Preeti Roy, Jasmine George, Smita Srivastava, Shilpa Tyagi, Yogeshwer Shukla

Investigational New Drugs (2011)

5) Bromelain inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of MAPK regulated NF-kappa B against skin tumor-initiation triggering mitochondrial death pathway

Kulpreet Bhui, Sahdeo Prasad, Jasmine George, Yogeshwer Shukla

Cancer Letters (2009)

6) Potential of diallyl sulfide bearing pH-sensitive liposomes in chemoprevention against DMBA-induced skin papilloma

Arif Khan, Yogeshwer Shukla, Neetu Kalra, Maroof Alam, Manzoor Gatoo Ahmad, Seema Rashid Hakim, Mohammad Owais

Molecular Medicine (2007)

7) Inhibitory effect of tea polyphenols on hepatic preneoplastic foci in Wistar rats

Smita Srivastava, Madhulika Singh, Preeti Roy, Sahdeo Prasad, Jasmine George, Yogeshwer Shukla

Investigational New Drugs (2009)

8) Tea Polyphenols Induce Apoptosis Through Mitochondrial Pathway and by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-κB and Akt Activation in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

Madhulika Singh, Richa Singh, Kulpreet Bhui, Shilpa Tyagi, Zafar Mahmood, Yogeshwer Shukla

Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clinical Cancer Therapeutics (2011)

9) Cypermethrin exposure leads to regulation of proteins expression involved in neoplastic transformation in mouse skin

Jasmine George, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Richa Singh, Yogeshwer Shukla

Proteomics (2011)

10) Anti-Cancer Activity of Bromelain Nanoparticles by Oral Administration

Priyanka Bhatnagar, Soma Patnaik, Amit K. Srivastava, Mohan K. R. Mudiam, Yogeshwer Shukla, Amulya K. Panda, Aditya B. Pant, Pradeep Kumar, Kailash C. Gupta

Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology (2014)

11) Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and aflatoxin B1 induced skin tumorigenesis in mice

Shipra Rastogi, Yogeshwer Shukla, Bhola N Paul, D Kar Chowdhuri, Subhash K Khanna, Mukul Das

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2007)

12) Resveratrol induces apoptosis involving mitochondrial pathways in mouse skin tumorigenesis

Neetu Kalra, Preeti Roy, Sahdeo Prasad, Yogeshwer Shukla

Life Sciences (2008)

13) Chemopreventive potential of resveratrol in mouse skin tumors through regulation of mitochondrial and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways

Preeti Roy, Neetu Kalra, Sahdeo Prasad, Jasmine George, Yogeshwer Shukla

Pharmaceutical Research (2009)

14) Regulation of p21/ras protein expression by diallyl sulfide in DMBA induced neoplastic changes in mouse skin

Annu Arora, Neetu Kalra, Yogeshwer Shukla

Cancer Letters (2006)

15) [6]-Gingerol induces reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondrial cell death pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

Nidhi Nigam, Kulpreet Bhui, Sahdeo Prasad, Jasmine George, Yogeshwer Shukla

Chemico-Biological Interactions (2009)

16) Induction of apoptosis by lupeol and mango extract in mouse prostate and LNCaP cells

Sahdeo Prasad, Neetu Kalra, Yogeshwer Shukla

Nutrition and Cancer (2007)

17) Hepatoprotective effects of lupeol and mango pulp extract of carcinogen induced alteration in Swiss albino mice

Sahdeo Prasad, Neetu Kalra, Yogeshwer Shukla

Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2007)

18) Resveratrol improves the anticancer effects of doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo models: A mechanistic insight

Girish Rai, Sanjay Mishra, Shankar Suman, Yogeshwer Shukla

Phytomedicine (2016)

19) Polo-like kinase1 (Plk1) knockdown enhances cisplatin chemosensitivity via up-regulation of p73α in p53 mutant human epidermoid squamous carcinoma cells

Shilpa Tyagi, Kulpreet Bhui, Richa Singh, Madhulika Singh, Sheikh Raisuddin, Yogeshwer Shukla

Biochemical Pharmacology (2010)

20) Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by diallyl sulfide in K562 leukemic cells and in mouse liver

Annu Arora, Kavita Seth, Yogeshwer Shukla

Carcinogenesis (2004)

21) Early changes in proteome levels upon acute deltamethrin exposure in mammalian skin system associated with its neoplastic transformation potential

Jasmine George, Yogeshwer Shukla

The Journal of Toxicological Sciences (2013)

22) Modulation of p53 in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced skin tumors by diallyl sulfide in Swiss albino mice

Annu Arora, Imtiaz A Siddiqui, Yogeshwer Shukla

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (2004)

23) Synergistic growth inhibition of mouse skin tumors by pomegranate fruit extract and diallyl sulfide: evidence for inhibition of activated MAPKs/NF-κB and reduced cell proliferation

Jasmine George, Madhulika Singh, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Kulpreet Bhui, Yogeshwer Shukla

Food and Chemical Toxicology (2011)

24) Tea polyphenols enhance cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells via induction of apoptosis

Madhulika Singh, Kulpreet Bhui, Richa Singh, Yogeshwer Shukla

Life Sciences (2013)

25) PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

Madhulika Singh, Priyanka Bhatnagar, Sanjay Mishra, Pradeep Kumar, Yogeshwer Shukla, Kailash Chand Gupta

International Journal of Nanomedicine (2015)

26) Neoplastic alterations induced in mammalian skin following mancozeb exposure using in vivo and in vitro models

Shilpa Tyagi, Jasmine George, Richa Singh, Kulpreet Bhui, Yogeshwer Shukla

OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology (2011)

27) Induction of apoptosis by [6]-gingerol associated with the modulation of p53 and involvement of mitochondrial signaling pathway in B[a]P-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis

Nidhi Nigam, Jasmine George, Smita Srivastava, Preeti Roy, Kulpreet Bhui, Madhulika Singh, Yogeshwer Shukla

Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology (2010)

28) Induction of apoptosis by tea polyphenols mediated through mitochondrial cell death pathway in mouse skin tumors

Preeti Roy, Nidhi Nigam, Jasmine George, Smita Srivastava, Yogeshwer Shukla

Cancer Biology & Therapy (2009)

29) Tea polyphenols inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 expression and block activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and Akt in diethylnitrosoamine induced lung tumors in Swiss mice

Preeti Roy, Nidhi Nigam, Madhulika Singh, Jasmine George, Smita Srivastava, Hasnain Naqvi, Yogeshwer Shukla

Investigational New Drugs (2010)

30) Mancozeb-induced genotoxicity and apoptosis in cultured human lymphocytes

Amit Kumar Srivastava, Wahid Ali, Richa Singh, Kulpreet Bhui, Shilpa Tyagi, Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy, Pramod Kumar Srivastava, Javed Musarrat, Yogeshwer Shukla

Life Sciences (2012)

31) Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

Preeti Roy, Esha Madan, Neetu Kalra, Nidhi Nigam, Jasmine George, Ratan Singh Ray, Rajendra K Hans, Sahdeo Prasad, Yogeshwer Shukla

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2009)

32) Protective effects of lupeol against mancozeb-induced genotoxicity in cultured human lymphocytes

Amit Kumar Srivastava, Sanjay Mishra, Wahid Ali, Yogeshwer Shukla

Phytomedicine (2016)

33) Bromelain nanoparticles protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in mouse model

Priyanka Bhatnagar, Aditya B. Pant, Yogeshwer Shukla, Bhushan Chaudhari, Pradeep Kumar, Kailash C. Gupta

European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (2015)

34) In vitro and in vivo modulation of testosterone mediated alterations in apoptosis related proteins by [6]-gingerol

Yogeshwer Shukla, Sahdeo Prasad, Chitra Tripathi, Madhulika Singh, Jasmine George, Neetu Kalra

Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2007)

35) Allethrin-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

Amit Kumar Srivastava, Pramod Kumar Srivastava, Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy, Javed Musarrat, Yogeshwer Shukla

Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis (2012)

36) Theaflavins induce G2/M arrest by modulating expression of p21waf1/cip1, cdc25C and cyclin B in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells

Sahdeo Prasad, Jaspreet Kaur, Preeti Roy, Neetu Kalra, Yogeshwer Shukla

Life Sciences (2007)

37) Regulation of signaling pathways involved in lupeol induced inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells

Sahdeo Prasad, Nidhi Nigam, Neetu Kalra, Yogeshwer Shukla

Molecular Carcinogenesis (2008)

38) 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE)-crosslinked PEI-g-imidazole nanoparticles as nucleic acid-carriers in vitro and in vivo

Ritu Goyal, Ruby Bansal, Shilpa Tyagi, Yogeshwer Shukla, Pradeep Kumar, Kailash Chand Gupta

Molecular BioSystems (2011)

39) Synthesis of PLGA nanoparticles of tea polyphenols and their strong in vivo protective effect against chemically induced DNA damage

Amit Kumar Shukla, Priyanka Srivastava, Madhulika Bhatnagar, Sanjay Singh, Pradeep Mishra, Yogeshwer Kumar, Kailash Chand Gupta

40) Cypermethrin Stimulates GSK3β-Dependent Aβ and p-tau Proteins and Cognitive Loss in Young Rats: Reduced HB-EGF Signaling and Downstream Neuroinflammation as Critical Regulators

Shailendra Kumar Maurya, Juhi Mishra, Sabiya Abbas, Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay

Molecular Neurobiology (2016)

41) DNA and oxidative damage induced in somatic organs and tissues of mouse by municipal sludge leachate

Adekunle A Bakare, Sushila Patel, Alok K Pandey, Mahima Bajpayee, Alok Dhawan

Toxicology and Industrial Health (2012)

42) Role of type I & type II reactions in DNA damage and activation of caspase 3 via mitochondrial pathway induced by photosensitized benzophenone

Saroj Kumar Amar, Shruti Goyal, Syed Faiz Mujtaba, Ashish Dwivedi, Hari Narayan Kushwaha, Ankit Verma, Deepti Chopra, Rajnish K. Chaturvedi, Ratan Singh Ray

Toxicology Letters (2015)

43) Allethrin-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

Amit Kumar Srivastava, Pramod Kumar Srivastava, Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy, Javed Musarrat, Yogeshwer Shukla

Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis (2012)

44) Regulation of signaling pathways involved in lupeol induced inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells

Sahdeo Prasad, Nidhi Nigam, Neetu Kalra, Yogeshwer Shukla

Molecular carcinogenesis (2008)

45) Expression and inducibility of cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, 2B6, 2E1, 3A4) in human cord blood CD34(+) stem cell-derived differentiating neuronal cells

Abhishek K. Singh, Mahendra P. Kashyap, Sadaf Jahan, Vivek Kumar, Vinay K. Tripathi, Maqsood A. Siddiqui, Sanjay Yadav, Vinay K. Khanna, Vinita Das, Swatantra K. Jain, Aditya B. Pant

Toxicological Sciences (2012)

The 2014 paper where the duplicated figures are used was published in Molecular Nuerobiology

46) Maneb and paraquat-induced modulation of toxicant responsive genes in the rat liver: comparison with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

Israr Ahmad, Smriti Shukla, Ashutosh Kumar, Brajesh Kumar Singh, Devendra Kumar Patel, Haushila Prasad Pandey, Chetna Singh

Chemico-Biological Interactions (2010)

47) Protective role of morin, a flavonoid, against high glucose induced oxidative stress mediated apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes

Radhika Kapoor, Poonam Kakkar

PLoS ONE (2012)

48) A flow cytometric method to assess nanoparticle uptake in bacteria

Ashutosh Kumar, Alok K. Pandey, Shashi S. Singh, Rishi Shanker, Alok Dhawan

Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (2011)

49) Superoxide mediated photomodification and DNA damage induced apoptosis by Benz(a)anthracene via mitochondrial mediated pathway

Syed Faiz Mujtaba, Ashish Dwivedi, Neera Yadav, Ratnasekhar Ch, Hari Narayan Kushwaha, Mohana K.R. Mudiam, Gajendra Singh, Ratan S. Ray

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology (2015)

50) Over-expression of superoxide dismutase ameliorates Cr(VI) induced adverse effects via modulating cellular immune system of Drosophila melanogaster

Prakash Pragya, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Ramesh Chandra Murthy, Malik Zainul Abdin, Debapratim Kar Chowdhuri

PLoS ONE (2014)

51) ZnO nanoparticles induced adjuvant effect via toll-like receptors and Src signaling in Balb/c mice

Ruchi Roy, Dinesh Kumar, Akanksha Sharma, Parul Gupta, Bhushan P. Chaudhari, Anurag Tripathi, Mukul Das, Premendra D. Dwivedi

Toxicology Letters (2014)

52) Impaired lysosomal activity mediated autophagic flux disruption by graphite carbon nanofibers induce apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells through oxidative stress and energetic impairment

Sandeep Mittal, Pradeep Kumar Sharma, Ratnakar Tiwari, Raja Gopal Rayavarapu, Jai Shankar, Lalit Kumar Singh Chauhan, Alok Kumar Pandey

Particle and Fibre Toxicology (2017)

53) Mechanism of inhibition of the ATPase domain of human topoisomerase IIα by 1,4-benzoquinone, 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and 9,10-phenanthroquinone

Deepak Gurbani, Vandna Kukshal, Julian Laubenthal, Ashutosh Kumar, Alok Pandey, Sarita Tripathi, Ashish Arora, Swatantra K. Jain, Ravishankar Ramachandran, Diana Anderson, Alok Dhawan

Toxicological Sciences (2012)

54) PLGA-encapsulated tea polyphenols enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against human cancer cells and mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

Madhulika Singh, Priyanka Bhatnagar, Sanjay Mishra, Pradeep Kumar, Yogeshwer Shukla, Kailash Chand Gupta

International Journal of Nanomedicine (2015)

55) Bromelain nanoparticles protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in mouse model

Priyanka Bhatnagar, Aditya B. Pant, Yogeshwer Shukla, Bhushan Chaudhari, Pradeep Kumar, Kailash C. Gupta

European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V (2015)

56) Topical application of ochratoxin A causes DNA damage and tumor initiation in mouse skin

Rahul Kumar, Kausar M. Ansari, Bhushan P. Chaudhari, Alok Dhawan, Premendra D. Dwivedi, Swatantra K. Jain, Mukul Das

PLoS ONE (2012)

57) Partial characterization of red gram (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) polypeptides recognized by patients exhibiting rhinitis and bronchial asthma

Amita Misra, Rahul Kumar, Vivek Mishra, Bhushan P. Chaudhari, Anurag Tripathi, Mukul Das, Premendra D. Dwivedi

Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (2010)

58) Transcriptomic analysis provides insights on hexavalent chromium induced DNA double strand breaks and their possible repair in midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster larvae

Manish Mishra, A. Sharma, A.K. Shukla, P. Pragya, R.C. Murthy, David De Pomerai, U.N. Dwivedi, D. Kar Chowdhuri

Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis (2013)

59) A novel function of TLR4 in mediating the immunomodulatory effect of Benzanthrone, an environmental pollutant

Prachi Tewari, Payal Mandal, Ruchi Roy, Somya Asthana, Premendra D Dwivedi, Mukul Das, Anurag Tripathi

Toxicology letters (2017)

60) Natural terpenes prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and release of apoptotic proteins during nimesulide-hepatotoxicity in rats

Brijesh Kumar Singh, Madhulika Tripathi, Bhushan P. Chaudhari, Pramod K. Pandey, Poonam Kakkar

PLoS ONE (2012)

61) Resveratrol and black tea polyphenol combination synergistically suppress mouse skin tumors growth by inhibition of activated MAPKs and p53

Jasmine George, Madhulika Singh, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Kulpreet Bhui, Preeti Roy, Pranav Kumar Chaturvedi, Yogeshwer Shukla

PLoS ONE (2011)

62) Differentiating neurons derived from human umbilical cord blood stem cells work as a test system for developmental neurotoxicity

Mahendra P. Kashyap, Vivek Kumar, Abhishek K. Singh, Vinay K. Tripathi, Sadaf Jahan, Ankita Pandey, Ritesh K. Srivastava, Vinay K. Khanna, Aditya B. Pant

Molecular Neurobiology (2015)

63) Benzophenone 1 induced photogenotoxicity and apoptosis via release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO at environmental UV radiation

Saroj Kumar Amar, Shruti Goyal, Divya Dubey, Ajeet K. Srivastav, Deepti Chopra, Jyoti Singh, Jai Shankar, Rajnish K. Chaturvedi, Ratan Singh Ray

Toxicology Letters (2015)

64) Naringenin prevents high glucose-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis involving AIF, Endo-G and caspases

Radhika Kapoor, Fatima Rizvi, Poonam Kakkar

Apoptosis : an international journal on programmed cell death (2013)

65) Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells

Vinay K. Tripathi, Vivek Kumar, Abhishek K. Singh, Mahendra P. Kashyap, Sadaf Jahan, Ankita Pandey, Sarfaraz Alam, Feroz Khan, Vinay K. Khanna, Sanjay Yadav, Mohtshim Lohani, Aditya B. Pant

PLoS ONE (2014)

66) O-hexadecyl-dextran entrapped berberine nanoparticles abrogate high glucose stress induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes

Radhika Kapoor, Shruti Singh, Madhulika Tripathi, Priyanka Bhatnagar, Poonam Kakkar, Kailash Chand Gupta

PLoS ONE (2014)

The newer paper published in 2018 in the journal Drug Delivery and Translational Research where image duplication can be seen is listed here on Pubpeer.

67) Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis and DNA damage in Drosophila through generation of reactive oxygen species

Subash C. Gupta, Manish Mishra, Anurag Sharma, T.G.R. Deepak Balaji, Rakesh Kumar, Ranjit K. Mishra, Debapratim K. Chowdhuri

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (2010)

68) Cypermethrin exposure leads to regulation of proteins expression involved in neoplastic transformation in mouse skin

Jasmine George, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Richa Singh, Yogeshwer Shukla

Proteomics (2011)

69) Cellular and molecular mechanism of ofloxacin induced apoptotic cell death under ambient UV-A and sunlight exposure

Dwivedi, S. F. Mujtaba, N. Yadav, H. N. Kushwaha, S. K. Amar, S. K. Singh, M. C. Pant, R. S. Ray

Free Radical Research (2014)

70) PHLPP2 down regulation influences nuclear Nrf2 stability via Akt-1/Gsk3β/Fyn kinase axis in acetaminophen induced oxidative renal toxicity: Protection accorded by morin

Alpana Mathur, Fatima Rizvi, Poonam Kakkar

Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (2016)

71) Purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of 26 kDa protein, a major allergen from Cicer arietinum

Alok Kumar Verma, Akanksha Sharma, Sandeep Kumar, Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Dinesh Kumar, Kriti Gupta, B.H. Giridhar, Mukul Das, Premendra D. Dwivedi

Molecular Immunology (2016)

72) Regulation of signaling pathways involved in lupeol induced inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells

Sahdeo Prasad, Nidhi Nigam, Neetu Kalra, Yogeshwer Shukla

 

2 Thoughts

  1. Government is funding these institutions open handedly and still few people who follow unethical practice spoil the credibility of sincere scientist. Now who will believe in the outcome of such research institute? Such people should be sacked and all post retirement benefits should be withdrawn.

Leave a Reply to Sanjay Kasture Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.